好評連載コラム 実務翻訳のススメ

32-2 等位接続詞

等位接続詞は、前述のように2つの語・句・節を対等関係で結合する働きをしますが、その表す意味によって、1. 連結接続詞、2. 選択接続詞、3. 反意接続詞、4. 因由接続詞の4つに分けられます。

  1. 連結接続詞
    単に語・句・節をつなぎ合わせる接続詞で、and、both~and・・・、as well as、not only~but also・・・などがあります。
    Come and see me sometime. (いつか遊びにいらしてください)
    The company’s position on patent rights is both〔at once〕severe and impractical.
    He as well as you is guilty of the same fault.
    Not only〔merely〕hard work, but also patience is necessary for success in life. (人生で成功するには勤勉だけでなく忍耐も必要である)
    【注】AとBが対等であることを強調したいときは、A and Bよりもboth A and Bのほうが好まれます。というのは “A and B” の形では、and Bが従属節的な関係を表したり、AとBで単一観念(単数扱い)を表したりする場合があるからです。
    bread and butter(バターを塗ったパン)、a watch and chain(鎖のついた時計)、ham and eggs(卵をそえたハム)、brandy and soda(ソーダ水で割ったブランデー)、strawberries and cream(クリームをかけたいちご)
    Early to bed and early to rise
    (=To keep early hours) makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
    (早寝早起きは健康的で人を富ませ賢くする ―― ことわざ)
    Speak the truth, and the situation will change for the better.
    Another failure, and you’ll be fired. (こんど失敗したら首だぞ)
  2. 選択接続詞
    In a scientific inquiry, an error, great or small, is always dangerous.

    \text{Come in or go out. (入るか出るかしなさい)} \\
    \text{Either come in or go out.} \\
    Not a man nor an animal could be seen on the island.
    \text{He doesn’t  (either) drink or smoke. (酒もたタバコものまない)} \\
    \text{He neither drinks nor smokes. } \\
    You must take rest,otherwise you will lose your health.

    【注1】接続詞としてのnorには、〔否定語をうけて〕「~もまた・・・ない」(=and not either)の意味があります。
    I am not a rich man, nor do I wish to be one.
    【注2】otherwiseと同じようにor elseも命令文(相当語)のあとにつづけて、「(~しなさい)さもなければ」の意味を表します。
    Be quick, or (else) you will be late.
    Take the risk, (or) else you will regret it.
  3. 反意接続詞
    \text{He is a clever man, but the problem was too hard for him.} \\
    \text{(彼は器用な男だ、だがその問題は手に負えなかった)} \\
    \text{We aren’t here to talk nonsense, but to act.}\\
    \text{(ここにいるのはたわごとを語るためではなく、行動するためなのだ)} \\

    It is a costly article, which, however, is worth the price.
    I agree with you, (and) yet I cannot consent to your proposal.
    Though it went well, still he was not happy.
    He is a clever salesman, nevertheless he sometimes makes mistakes.
    While I have no money to spend, he has more than he needs.
    I thought he was a learned man, whereas〔while〕he was only a fraud.
    He makes good resolutions, only〔but〕he never keeps them.
    【注】but; however、still、neverthelessについて
    He supported his family on his small salary and〔butは不可〕he seemed very proud that he wasn’t on welfare. (彼は薄給で妻子を養っていたが、社会保護を受けていないことを大いに誇りにしているように思えた)

    \text{I didn’t go, but he said nothing about it.} \\
    \text{(私は行かなかった、しかし彼はそのことは口外しなかった)} \\
    \text{I didn’t go, but stayed at home instead.(私は行かないで家にいた)}

    Excuse me but I must disagree with what you are saying.
    These plans, however, cannot be carried out without money.
    He had traveled a long way, and was extremely tired. However, because of the surrounding noise he was unable to go to sleep until the early hours of the morning.
    ( 彼は長い行程を旅して、くたくたに疲れていた。だが周りの音がうるさくて朝方まで寝つけなかった)
    It is an understandable error; still it is an error.
    There was no news; nevertheless she went on hoping.
    I will say nothing to anyone, but it will reach the manager’s ears nevertheless.
    ( 私は決して口外はしないが、それでも(いつか)マネージャーの耳に入るだろう)
  4. 因由接続詞
    I asked her to stay longer, for I had something to tell her.
    ( 私は彼女にもっとゆっくりしているようにと言った、というのは彼女に話したいことがあったからである)
    I think; therefore I am. (我思う、ゆえに我あり ―― デカルト)
    It is late now, (and) so we had better go to bed.
    (=As it is late now, we had better go to bed.)
    thereforeはfor that reasonの意味で、論文その他理屈っぽい文などに用いられるのが普通です。