好評連載コラム 実務翻訳のススメ

31-2 前置詞の目的語


第31章 前置詞


  1. 前置詞の目的語となりうるもの
    1. 名詞・代名詞
      The majority of Japanese people regard themselves as middle-class.
      The urgency of the situation is an unimportant matter to him.
    2. 動名詞
      He is quick in catching opportunities. (彼は機をとらえるのが早い)
      She is good at speaking English. (彼女は英語を話すのがうまい)
    3. 不定詞 ―― about、butなどに限られ、文語体
      I was just about to leave when she telephoned.
      I could do nothing but keep silent about the matter.
    4. 形容詞 ―― 慣用句の形で
      He cannot speak English at all. (彼は全く英語が話せない)
      Things went from bad to worse. (事態は一層悪化した)
      このほかafter all(やはり)、at best(せいぜい)、at first(最初は)、in all(総計で)、in general(一般に=generally)、of late(近頃=lately)など
    5. 句 ―― 「前置詞 + 名詞」の形で
      A man came from behind the door and told me to stay where I was.
      The survey covered one thousand salaried workers of from fifty to fifty-nine years of age.
      ( この調査は50歳から59歳までのサラリーマン1,000名を範囲としたものである)
      このほかfrom under the table(テーブルの下から)、since before the war(戦前以来)など
    6. 節 ―― 疑問詞に導かれるもの
      He is worrying about what we should do next.
      He will not work except when he wants to.
      Return it to where it came from.
  2. 前置詞と目的語の位置
    1. 目的語が疑問詞(または疑問詞のついた語句)の場合
      \text{For whom are you waiting? 【文語体】} \\
      \text{(だれを待っていらっしゃるのですか)} \\
      \text{Who (Whom) are you waiting for? 【口語体】} \\
      \text{At whose house are you staying? 【文語体】} \\
      \text{(だれの家にお泊まりですか)} \\
      \text{Whose house are you staying at? 【口語体】} \\
    2. 目的語が関係代名詞(または関係代名詞のついた語句)の場合
      This is a well-known gallery    
      in which many kinds of articles are displayed
      for sale.
      which many kinds of articles are displayed in

      Is that the farm (that) you spoke of the other day?
      I don’t like men such as those you have been mixing with.
      What is the job in which you are most interested?
      (which) you are most interested in?
      Jet engines, with which most modern aircraft are equipped, are constructed of lightweight materials.
      (=Jet engines, which most modern aircraft are equipped with, ・・・.)
      ( ジェットエンジン(、それ)は最新鋭航空機の大半が装備しており、軽量素材で造られている)
    3. 前置詞が形容詞的用法の不定詞に付随する場合
      I have no money to buy a house with.
      There is nothing for you to be afraid of.
    4. 前置詞を含む動詞句が受動態になった場合
      I was spoken to by a foreigner in〔on〕the street.
      (← A foreigner spoke to me in〔on〕the street.)
      He is not to be depended (up)on (by anybody).
    5. 目的語を文頭において強調する場合 ―― 前置詞は動詞のあとに置きます。
      Him I rely (up)on. (彼こそ私は当てにしているのだ)
      Anything else I would willingly agree to.
  3. 前置詞の目的語と前置詞の省略
    1. 前置詞の目的語の省略
      \text{The relief party came up the hill. 【前置詞】} \\
      \text{(救援隊が丘をのぼって来た)} \\
      \text{The relief party came up (=approached), in spite of the wind and rain. 【副詞】} \\
      \text{(救援隊が風雨を衝いて近づいて来た)} \\
      \text{He walked along the street to the station. 【前置詞】} \\
      \text{(彼は通りを歩いて駅まで行った)} \\
      \text{He walked along talking to (with) his friends.【副詞】} \\
      \text{(彼は友人と話しながら歩いて行った)} \\

    2. 前置詞の省略
      1. 目的語の前にthis、last、next、one、every、aboutなどがついている場合
        I came to the office (at) about eight this morning.
        Every end of the month I am extremely busy.
      2. 目的語がthat節の場合
        be aware of(に気づく)、be afraid of(を恐れる)、be glad of(を喜ぶ)、be sure of(を確信する)、see to(に気をつける)などの目的語が、thatに導かれる名詞節の場合には、前置詞を省略するのがふつうです。

        \text{He was aware of my resignation. (彼は私の辞職を知っていた)} \\
        \text{He was aware that I had resigned.} \\
        \text{Please see to your health. (健康に気をつけてください)} \\
        \text{Please see that you stay healthy.} \\